Europa World: The Europa World Year Book online Routledge -- Taylor & Francis group
 
 

Credits

Site content

Senior Editor: Juliet Love
Senior Editor, Statistics: Philip McIntyre
Senior Editor, Directory: Iain Frame
Regional Editors: Imogen Gladman, Cathy Hartley, Dominic Heaney, Neil Higgins, Christopher Matthews, Jackie West
International Organizations Editor: Helen Canton
Contributing Editors: Simon Chapman, Catriona Holman, Katharine Murison, Jillian O’Brien, Gareth Vaughan, Gareth Wyn Jones
Editorial Assistant: Lydia de Cruz
Statistics Researchers: Varun Wadhawan (Team Manager), Mohd Khalid Ansari (Senior Research and Training Associate), Meghal Arora, Swati Gambhir, Suchi Kedia, Ishaan Gera, Nirbachita Sarkar
Directory Editorial Researchers: Arijit Khasnobis (Team Manager), Rima Kar (Deputy Team Leader), Birendra Pratap Nayak, Thoithoi Pukhrambam, C. Sandhya (Senior Editorial Researchers), Shubha Banerjee (Editorial Research Associate), Bhawna Chauhan, Swati Chopra, Anveshi Gupta, Sneha Malik, Rituparna Sengupta, Surabhi Srivastava
Biographical Reference Editor: Robert J. Elster
Biographical Editorial Researchers: Ankita Baruah (Team Leader), Herina Gangmei, Arsheen Kaur, Tanmoyee Rajkhowa
Contributors: Christopher Bell, Rebecca Bomford, Katie Dawson, Lucy Dean, Driss Fatih, Kirstie Hughes, Joanne Maher, Catriona Marcham, Elizabeth Salzman
Editorial Director: Paul Kelly

Maps: All maps copyright Routledge, supplied by University of Southampton Cartographic Unit. Digital Map Data copyright (2003) XYZ Digital Map Company Ltd
Flags: Flag images supplied by www.epsflags.com and World Flag Database
Home page image: Strasbourg, France: The European Parliament building in Strasbourg, interior; 1999; Paul O’Driscoll; copyright © BBC Photo Library

Data conversion and DTD creation: Semantico
Data enhancement: Apex ePublishing
Europa editorial content management system: empolis

Site architecture, development and design: Semantico
Search engine: Convera RetrievalWare
Hosting: Globix

Acknowledgements: Statistical Data

The editors gratefully acknowledge particular indebtedness for permission to reproduce material from the following sources: the United Nations’ statistical databases and Demographic Yearbook, Statistical Yearbook, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook and International Trade Statistics Yearbook; the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s Statistical Yearbook and Institute for Statistics database; the Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ statistical database; the statistical databases of the World Health Organization; the statistical databases of the UNCTAD/WTO International Trade Centre; the International Labour Office’s statistical database and Yearbook of Labour Statistics; the World Bank’s World Bank Atlas, Global Development Finance, World Development Report and World Development Indicators; the International Monetary Fund’s statistical database, International Financial Statistics and Government Finance Statistics Yearbook; the World Tourism Organization’s Compendium and Yearbook of Tourism Statistics; the US Geological Survey; the International Telecommunication Union; the International Road Federation’s World Road Statistics; Lloyd's List; and The Military Balance 2014, a publication of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Arundel House, 13–15 Arundel Street, London WC2R 3DX. Statistics Canada information is used with the permission of Statistics Canada. Users are forbidden to copy this material and/or redisseminate the data, in an original or modified form, for commercial purposes, without the expressed permission of Statistics Canada. Information on the availability of the wide range of data from Statistics Canada can be obtained from Statistics Canada’s Regional Offices, its website at www.statcan.ca, and its toll-free access number 1-800-263-1136.

Health and Welfare: Sources and Definitions

Total fertility rate: Source WHO Statistical Information System (part of the Global Health Observatory). The number of children that would be born per woman, assuming no female mortality at child-bearing ages and the age-specific fertility rates of a specified country and reference period.
Under-5 mortality rate: Source WHO Statistical Information System. Defined by WHO as the probability of a child born in a specific year or period dying before the age of five, if subject to the age-specific mortality rates of that year or period.
HIV/AIDS: Source UNAIDS. Estimated percentage of adults aged 15 to 49 years living with HIV/AIDS. < indicates ‘fewer than’.
Health expenditure: Source WHO Statistical Information System
US $ per head (PPP): International dollar estimates, derived by dividing local currency units by an estimate of their purchasing power parity (PPP) compared with the US dollar. PPPs are the rates of currency conversion that equalize the purchasing power of different currencies by eliminating the differences in price levels between countries.
% of GDP: GDP levels for OECD countries follow the most recent UN System of National Accounts. For non-OECD countries a value was estimated by utilizing existing UN, IMF and World Bank data.
Public expenditure: Government health-related outlays plus expenditure by social schemes compulsorily affiliated with a sizeable share of the population, and extrabudgetary funds allocated to health services. Figures include grants or loans provided by international agencies, other national authorities, and sometimes commercial banks.
Access to water and sanitation: Source WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) (Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation, 2013 Update). Defined in terms of the percentage of the population using improved facilities in terms of the type of technology and levels of service afforded. For water, this includes house connections, public standpipes, boreholes with handpumps, protected dug wells, protected spring and rainwater collection; allowance is also made for other locally defined technologies. Sanitation is defined to include connection to a sewer or septic tank system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit or ventilated improved pit latrine, again with allowance for acceptable local technologies. Access to water and sanitation does not imply that the level of service or quality of water is ‘adequate’ or ‘safe’.
Carbon dioxide emissions: Source World Bank, World Development Indicators database, citing the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (sponsored by the US Department of Energy). Emissions comprise those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels (including those produced during consumption of solid, liquid and gas fuels and from gas flaring) and from the manufacture of cement.
Human Development Index: Source UNDP, Human Development Report (2014). A summary of human development measured by three basic dimensions: prospects for a long and healthy life, measured by life expectancy at birth; access to knowledge, measured by a combination of mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling; and standard of living, measured by GNI per head (PPP US $). The index value obtained lies between zero and one. A value above 0.796 indicates very high human development, between 0.710 and 0.796 high human development, between 0.534 and 0.710 medium human development and below 0.534 low human development. A centralized data source for all three dimensions was not available for all countries. In some cases other data sources were used to calculate a substitute value; however, this was excluded from the ranking. Other countries, including non-UNDP members, were excluded from the HDI altogether. In total, 187 countries were ranked for 2013.

Europa World Plus contributors

Africa South of the Sahara
Central and South-Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia
The Far East and Australasia
The Middle East and North Africa
South America, Central America and the Caribbean
South Asia
The USA and Canada
Western Europe

Africa South of the Sahara

Alexandre Abreu. Researcher, Centre of African and Development Studies, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
J. A. Allan. Former Professor of Geography, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
L. Berry. Former Professor of Geography, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
E. A. Boateng. Environmental consultant and educationalist.
Richard A. Bradshaw. Former Professor of History, Centre College, Kentucky, USA.
Sir Mervyn Brown. Former British Ambassador to Madagascar. Member, Académie Malgache.
Richard Brown. Former Dean, School of African and Asian Studies, University of Sussex at Brighton, United Kingdom.
Greg Cameron. Associate Professor, Department of Business and Social Sciences, Dalhousie Faculty of Agriculture, Canada.
Marisé Castro. Researcher, Amnesty International, International Secretariat, London, United Kingdom.
Phil Clark. Lecturer in Comparative and International Politics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom, and Advisory Board Member, Oxford Transitional Justice Research.
John I. Clarke. Professor of Geography, University of Durham, United Kingdom.
Walter S. Clarke. Senior Advisor for Civil-Military Co-operation, Global Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Action, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, USA.
Julian Cooke. Editor of the Anglo-Malagasy Society Newsletter.
Devon Curtis. Lecturer in Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Bjorn Dahlin van Wees. Economist specializing in sub-Saharan Africa.
Ana Naomi de Sousa. Journalist and writer specializing in lusophone and sub-Saharan African countries.
Elaine Dunphy. Research analyst and writer specializing in the global energy sector.
Juan Fandos-Rius. Encyclopaedist and historian of the Central African Republic.
Edward George. Writer specializing in sub-Saharan African political and economic issues.
Marie Gibert. Lecturer in International Relations, Nottingham Trent University.
Pierre Gourou. Late Professor of Geography, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, and Collège de France, Paris, France.
R. J. Harrison Church. Late Professor of Geography, London School of Economics, United Kingdom.
Celeste Hicks. Journalist specializing in the Sahel region and former British Broadcasting Corporation correspondent in Chad and Mali.
David Hilling. Research adviser, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom.
A. MacGregor Hutcheson. Former Lecturer in Geography, Aberdeen College of Education, United Kingdom.
Michael Jennings. Senior Lecturer in International Development, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Warka Solomon Kahsay. Graduate student, Saint Francis Xavier University, Antogonish, Canada.
Zachary D. Kaufman. Adjunct Professor, Elliot School of International Affairs, George Washington University, USA.
George Kay. Head of the Department of Geography and Recreation Studies, Staffordshire University, United Kingdom.
Joseph Lake. Economist specializing in sub-Saharan Africa.
Benjamin Langford. Economist, International Growth Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
B. W. Langlands. Late Professor of Geography, Makerere University College, Kampala, Uganda.
I. M. Lewis. Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
José Lingna Nafafé. Lecturer, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Robert E. Looney. International consultant specializing in economic development and Distinguished Professor, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA.
Akin L. Mabogunje. Former Professor of Geography, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Hugh Macmillan. Research Associate, African Studies Centre, University of Oxford.
Giuseppe Maimone. Ph.D. in History and Institutions of Africa, CoSMICA (Center for Studies about Contemporary Islamic World and Africa), Department of Political and Social Sciences, University of Catania, Italy.
Albert Makochekanwa. Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Zoë Marriage. Reader in Development Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Paul Melly. Journalist specializing in francophone Africa and Associate Fellow of the Africa Programme at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House), United Kingdom.
Peter K. Mitchell. Honorary Senior Research Fellow, Centre of West African Studies, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
W. T. W. Morgan. Former Senior Lecturer, Department of Geography, University of Durham, United Kingdom.
Katharine Murison. Editor of Africa South of the Sahara, 2001–04.
Ailish Neilon. Consultant specializing in the commodity and agri-business sectors.
Richard Nield. Journalist, broadcaster and filmmaker specializing in the Middle East and Africa.
Quentin Outram. Senior Lecturer in Economics, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
René Pélissier. Author specializing in contemporary Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking Africa.
Bhairav Raja. International development consultant specializing in African and Latin American political and economic issues.
Olivia U. Rutazibwa. Lecturer in European and International Development Studies, School of Languages and Area Studies, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Christopher Saunders. Emeritus Professor, Department of Historical Studies, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
Gerhard Seibert. Researcher, Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira (UNILAB), São Francisco do Conde, Brazil.
Sishuwa Sishuwa. Doctoral student of Modern History, St Cross College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Miles Smith-Morris. Writer specializing in developing countries.
Donald L. Sparks. Professor of International Economics, The Citadel, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, and Lecturer in International Business and Law, Management Centre Innsbruck, Austria.
Richard Synge. Writer and journalist specializing in African political and economic issues.
Ian Taylor. Professor of International Relations, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom.
Virginia Thompson. Writer specializing in francophone Africa.
Manickam Venkataraman. Associate Professor of Political Science and International Relations, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Jörg Wiegratz. Lecturer in Political Economy of Global Development, School of Politics and International Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Geoffrey J. Williams. Former Professor of Geography, University of Zambia.
Paul D. Williams. Associate Professor, Elliot School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
Duncan Woodside. Journalist and analyst specializing in economics and conflict in the Great Lakes of Africa.
Ralph Young. Senior Lecturer, Department of Government, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Central and South-Eastern Europe

Othon Anastasakis. Director of South East European Studies at Oxford and of the European Studies Centre, St Antony’s College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Daunis Auers. University of Latvia, Rīga, Latvia.
Will Bartlett. London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, United Kingdom.
Miroslav Beblavý. Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, Belgium.
Dimitar Bechev. Centre for Liberal Strategies, Sofia, Bulgaria.
Florian Bieber. Director, Centre for Southeast European Studies, University of Graz, Austria.
Ioannis Bournakis. University of Middlesex, United Kingdom.
Keith S. Brown. Watson Institute, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
Cathie Carmichael. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
Lubomir Christov. Economist and former Executive Director for Bulgaria at the World Bank.
Terry Cox. Professor at the University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Richard J. Crampton. Emeritus Fellow of St Edmund Hall, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Nevenka Čučković. IMO—Institute for International Relations, Zagreb, Croatia.
David A. Dyker. Emeritus Professor at the University of Sussex, United Kingdom.
Magnus Feldmann. University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
Tom Gallagher. Emeritus Professor at the University of Bradford, United Kingdom.
Kęstutis Girnius. Vilnius University, Lithuania.
Marko Attila Hoare. University of Kingston, United Kingdom.
Camilla Jensen. University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
Ana E. Juncos. University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
Andres Kasekamp. Professor at the University of Tartu, Estonia.
Michael Kaser. Emeritus Reader in Economics and Emeritus Fellow of St Antony’s College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
David Lea. Political analyst specializing in European affairs.
Panagiota Manoli. University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece.
Jeffrey Miller. University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.
Martin Myant. European Trade Union Institute, Brussels, Belgium.
David Norris. University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Kerem Öktem. European Studies Centre, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, and İstanbul Policy Centre, Sabancı University, Turkey.
Peter Palmer. Political analyst and writer.
Anita Prażmowska. London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, United Kingdom.
Andrew Ryder. University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Alan Smith. Emeritus Professor of Social Sciences, UCL, University of London, United Kingdom.
Enkeleida Tahiraj. London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, United Kingdom.
Marcus Tanner. Journalist and author.
Susannah Verney. University of Athens, Greece.
Marcela Veselkova. Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.
Miranda Vickers. Political analyst specializing in Albanian affairs.
Valentina Vučković. IMO—Institute for International Relations, Zagreb, Croatia.
Gordon Wightman. University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia

Shirin Akiner. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London and Associate Fellow, Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs), London, United Kingdom.
Luca Anceschi. Lecturer in Central Asia Studies at the Department of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
John Anderson. University of St Andrews, United Kingdom.
Richard Arnold. Muskingum University, New Concord, Ohio, USA.
Anders Äslund. Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC, USA.
Jane Falkingham. Director of the Economic and Social Research Council Centre for Population Change, Professor of Demography and International Social Policy at University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
Matteo Fumagalli. Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
J. Paul Goode. University of Oklahoma, USA.
Reuel R. Hanks. Oklahoma State University, USA.
Philip Hanson. Emeritus Professor at University of Birmingham and Associate Fellow of the Russia and Eurasia Programme, Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs), London, United Kingdom.
Edmund Herzig. University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Michael Kaser. Emeritus Reader in Economics and Emeritus Fellow of St Antony’s College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Onnik Krikorian. Journalist specializing in the South Caucasus.
Taras Kuzio. Writer, analyst, and consultant specializing in contemporary Ukrainian political, economic and security affairs.
Eric Lepisto. Anthropologist specializing in socio-political transformations in the former Soviet Union.
Heghine Manasyan. Country Director for Armenia, Caucasus Research Resource Centers, Yerevan, Armenia.
Neil Melvin. Director of the Armed Conflict and Conflict Management Programme, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Sweden.
Vladimer Papava. Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies, Tbilisi, Georgia.
Michael Rasell. University of Lincoln, United Kingdom.
Steven D. Roper. Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA.
Angus Roxburgh. Journalist, broadcaster and author.
Andrew Ryder. University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Inga Saikkonen. Researcher at the Åbo Akademiki University, Finland.
Natalia Shapovalova. Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diáloga Exterior, Madrid, Spain.
Alexander Sodiqov. Political analyst.
George Tarkhan-Mouravi. Co-director, Institute for Policy Studies, Tbilisi, Georgia.
Michael Tokmazishvili. Senior researcher, Foundation CASE-Transcaucasia, Tbilisi, Georgia.
Kai Wegerich. International Water Management Institute, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Toby Wight. Specialist in banking and economic development in Azerbaijan and the CIS.
Kenneth Wilson. Department of Political Science and Diplomacy, Dongguk University, Republic of Korea.

The Far East and Australasia

Tilak Abeysinghe. Associate Professor, Singapore Centre for Applied and Policy Economics, Department of Economics, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Bryant J. Allen. Visiting Fellow, State Society & Governance in Melanesia Program, School of International, Political and Strategic Studies, College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Robert F. Ash. Professor, Department of Economics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Prema-Chandra Athukorala. Professor of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, and Honorary Professorial Research Fellow, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
Mark Beeson. Professor of International Politics, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.
Anne Booth. Professor of Economics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Kerry Brown. Director of the China Studies Centre and Professor of Chinese Politics, University of Sydney, Australia.
Sigfrido Burgos Cáceres. Consultant on international development, political economy and foreign affairs.
Ian Campbell. Former Professor, School of Social Sciences, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
Joseph S. Chung. Former Professor of Economics, Stuart School of Business, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA.
Robert Cribb. Professor, School of Culture, History and Language, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Harvey Demaine. Former Associate Professor of Regional, Rural and Agricultural Development Planning, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.
Jörn Dosch. Professor of International Relations and Development Co-operation, University of Rostock, Germany.
Ronald Duncan. Emeritus Professor, Crawford School of Public Policy, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Greg Fealy. Associate Professor in Indonesian Politics, Department of Political and Social Change, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Dafydd Fell. Reader in Comparative Studies, with special reference to Taiwan, Department of Politics and International Studies, Director, Centre of Taiwan Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Stewart Firth. Visiting Fellow, School of International, Political and Strategic Studies, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Aidan Foster-Carter. Honorary Senior Research Fellow in Sociology and Modern Korea, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Michael Freeberne. Former Lecturer in Geography, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Nick Freeman. Independent development consultant, based in Yangon, Myanmar.
Rui Gomes. Assistant Country Director of the United Nations Development Programme Timor-Leste, and Advisor to the President of Timor-Leste.
Volker Grabowsky. Professor, Asia-Africa Institute, University of Hamburg, Germany.
Jeanine Graham. Former Senior Lecturer in History, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Lok Sang Ho. Professor of Economics, Centre for Public Policy Studies, Lingnan University, Hong Kong.
James E. Hoare. Former Research Analyst, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London, United Kingdom.
A. V. M. Horton. Former Honorary Fellow of the Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull, and Specialist in Brunei History, United Kingdom.
Kim Huynh. Lecturer in International Relations, School of Politics and International Relations, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Masami Imai. Professor of Economics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, USA.
Kenneth E. Jackson. Former Director, Centre for Development Studies, University of Auckland, and Adjunct Research Professor, AIS St Helens, Auckland, New Zealand.
Roger Lawrey. Head of School (Accounting, Economics and Finance), University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia.
Suiwah Leung. Adjunct Associate Professor of Economics and Finance, Crawford School of Economics and Government, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
S.R. Joey Long. Associate Professor of History and Director of the History Programme, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Stuart Macintyre. Professor of History, School of Historical and Philosophical Studies, University of Melbourne, Australia.
Stephen McCarthy. Senior Lecturer, Department of International Business and Asian Studies, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.
A. E. McQueen. Former Assistant General Manager, New Zealand Government Railways, New Zealand.
Ruth McVey. Emeritus Reader in Politics with reference to South-East Asia, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Anthony Milner. Basham Professor of Asian History, Australian National University, Professorial Fellow, University of Melbourne, Australia, and Adjunct Professor, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
N. J. Miners. Former Reader in Political Science, Department of Politics and Public Administration, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Jon Morales. Program Manager, Urban Services, Asia Foundation, San Francisco, USA.
Andrew C. Nahm. Former Professor Emeritus of History and Consultant to the Office of International Education and Programs, Western Michigan University, USA.
Neville Norman. Professor, Department of Economics, University of Melbourne, Australia.
Sorpong Peou. Chair of the Department of Politics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Canada.
Jirawat Saengthong. Specialist in Thai Social History, Institute of Liberal Arts, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.
Alan J. K. Sanders. Former Lecturer in Mongolian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
John Sargent. Former Reader in Geography, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
John T. Sidel. Sir Patrick Gillam Professor of International and Comparative Politics, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
Josef Silverstein. Former Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA.
Ross Steele. Principal Demographer, Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure, Government of South Australia and Adjunct Academic Staff, Geography and Population Program, School of the Environment, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
Laura Summers. Former Lecturer, Department of Politics and Asian Studies, University of Hull, United Kingdom.
Robert Sutter. Professor of Practice of International Affairs, The Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
Andrew T. H. Tan. Associate Professor and Convenor for International Studies, School of Social Science and International Studies, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
James Tang. Dean of the School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, Singapore.
John G. Taylor. Professor of International Development, London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom.
Htwe Htwe Thein. Senior Lecturer in International Business Studies, School of Management, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia.
C. M. Turnbull. Honorary Research Fellow, Centre for Asian Studies, and Former Professor of History, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Peter Warr. Head, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics, John Crawford Professor of Agricultural Economics, and Director, Poverty Research Centre, Crawford School of Public Policy, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
David Wittner. Professor of East Asian History, Chair, Departments of History and International Studies, Utica College, Utica, New York, USA.

The Middle East and North Africa

Ahmed Aghrout. Research Fellow, School of Humanities, Languages and Social Sciences, University of Salford, United Kingdom.
Khalid Almezaini. Lecturer in Politics and International Relations of the Gulf States, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar, and Visiting Research Fellow, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom.
Liam Anderson. Professor of Political Science, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA.
Dana Blander. Research Fellow, The Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, Israel.
Simon Chapman. Editor of The Middle East and North Africa, 1989–97.
Charles Charalambous. Independent communications consultant and journalist; formerly Financial Correspondent for the Cyprus Mail.
Jill Crystal. Professor, Department of Political Science, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.
Mohammad Reza Farzanegan. Assistant Professor of Middle East Economics, Center for Near and Middle East Studies and Marburg Center for Institutional Economics, Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany.
Richard German. Writer and researcher on international political and economic affairs.
Michael M. Gunter. Professor of Political Science, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee, USA, and Secretary-General of the EU Turkey Civic Commission.
Mohammad Habibpour Fatideh. Researcher and PhD candidate in economics, Middle East Economics Department, Center for Near and Middle East Studies, Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany.
Gareth Jenkins. Non-resident Senior Fellow with the Silk Road Studies Program, based in İstanbul, Turkey.
George Joffé. Lecturer on the Middle East and North Africa, Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, and former deputy director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House), London, United Kingdom.
Kimberly Jones. Lecturer in International Affairs and Faculty Associate, Middle East Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Nur Masalha. Professor of Religion and Politics, and Director of the Centre for Religion and History, School of Theology, Philosophy and History, St Mary’s University College, Twickenham, United Kingdom.
Philip McCrum. Analyst of the political and economic affairs of the Middle East, and Editorial Director, Continental Europe, Middle East and Africa, The Economist Group, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Gerd Nonneman. Dean and Professor of International Politics and Gulf Studies, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar, and Associate Editor of the Journal of Arabian Studies (Routledge).
Nigel Parsons Senior Lecturer, Politics Programme, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Neil Partrick. Writer and consultant on the Gulf and the Wider Middle East.
J. E. Peterson. Historian and political analyst specializing in the contemporary Arabian Peninsula and Persian (Arabian) Gulf, and former historian of the Sultan’s Armed Forces of Oman.
Christopher Phillips Senior Lecturer in the International Relations of the Middle East, Queen Mary, University of London, United Kingdom.
David Roberts. Lecturer, King's College London, United Kingdom, and former director of the Qatar office of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies.
Jalil Roshandel Associate Professor, Political Science and Security Studies, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.
Adham Saouli. Lecturer in International Relations and Middle East Politics, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Moin Siddiqi. Independent economist specializing in macroeconomic developments and the banking sector in the Middle East and Africa; also advises on trends in petroleum markets.
Aurora Sottimano. Lecturer, Department of Political Studies, British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt, and Fellow of the Centre for Syrian Studies, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom.
James Spencer. A retired senior officer with extensive battlefield and legal experience of low intensity conflict. He writes particualrly on the evolving nature of Law of Armed Conflict.
Ronald Bruce St John. Independent scholar specializing in the political economy of developing states, including Libya.
Denis J. Sullivan. Professor of Political Science and Co-Director, Middle East Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, and Director of the Boston Consortium for Arab Region Studies.
Elizabeth Taylor. Writer and researcher on international political and economic affairs.
Mehmet Uğur. Professor of Economics and Institutions, University of Greenwich Business School, London, United Kingdom.
Marc Valeri.Senior Lecturer in Political Economy of the Middle East and Director of the Centre for Gulf Studies, University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
James H. Wyllie. Visiting Scholar, Alfred von Oppenheim Center for European Policy Studies, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik e.V. (German Council on Foreign Relations), Berlin, Germany, and Reader in International Relations, School of Social Science, King's College, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
Yahia Zoubir. Professor of International Studies and International Management, and Director of Research in Geopolitics, KEDGE Business School, Marseille, France.

South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Dr Stavros Afionis. Research Fellow in the Sustainability Research Institute at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom, specializing in environmental politics, international climate change negotiations and biofuel politics.
Charles Arthur. Freelance journalist specializing in Caribbean politics and economics.
Dr Ame Bergés. Associate Fellow of the Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London, United Kingdom, and freelance writer specializing in Latin American economic development.
Dr Roland O. B. van den Bergh. Economist at Curconsult NV, Curaçao.
Prof. Marcos Buckeridge. Professor of Plant Physiology in the Institute of Biosciences and Director of the Institute of Science and Technololgy of Bioethanol at the University of São Paulo, Brazil.
Dr Julia Buxton. Professor of Comparative Politics in the School of Public Policy at the Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
Jessica Byron. Senior Lecturer in the Department of Government at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica.
Prof. Peter A. R. Calvert. Emeritus Professor of Comparative and International Politics at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
Dr Peter Clegg. Senior Lecturer in the Department of History, Philosophy and Politics at the University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
Dr John Crabtree. Research Associate at the Latin American Centre at the University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Dr David Díaz Arias. Associate Professor of History and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of History at the University of Costa Rica.
Nicola Favretto. Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Sustainability Research Institute at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom, specializing in sustainable energy, environment, agriculture and rural development.
Prof. David Fleischer. Professor of Political Science at the University of Brasília, Brazil.
Prof. Francisco E. González. Riordan Roett Senior Associate Professor of Latin American Studies at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC, USA.
Thomas Grisaffi. Leverhulme Early Career Research Fellow at the Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Dr David Howard. Lecturer in Sustainable Urban Development at the University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Dr Gareth A. Jones. Professor of Urban Geography in the Department of Geography at the London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom.
Prof. Antoni Kapcia. Professor of Latin American History and Director of the Centre for Research on Cuba at the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Prof. Colin M. Lewis. Professor Emeritus of Latin American Economic History at the London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom.
Prof. Robert E. Looney. Professor of National Security Affairs and Associate Chair of Instruction in the Department of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA.
James McDonough. Editor and Publisher at EPIN Publishing, including The Puerto Rico Report newsletter.
Sandy Markwick. Writer and researcher specializing in Latin American affairs.
Dr Emily Morris. Research Associate and Lecturer in the Economic Development of Latin America and the Caribbean at University College London’s Institute of the Americas, United Kingdom.
Sir Keith Morris. Former British Ambassador to Colombia.
Pablo Navarrete. Freelance writer and researcher on Latin America.
Dr Keron Niles. Renewable energy and energy efficiency specialist.
Dr Francisco Panizza. Associate Professor of Latin American Politics at the London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
Daniel Sachs. Political Analyst for Control Risks, London, United Kingdom, specializing in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean.
Dr Diego Sánchez-Ancochea. Lecturer in the Political Economy of Latin America at the University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Dr Hans Steinmüller. Assistant Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
Jeremy Thorp. Former British Ambassador to Colombia.
Dr James Van Alstine. Lecturer in Environmental Policy and Deputy Director of the Sustainability Research Institute at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Dr Ronny Viales-Hurtado. Professor of Economic History in the Graduate Programme of the University of Costa Rica.
Nicholas Watson. Director of Latin America Analysis at Teneo Intelligence, New York, USA.
Dr Peter Watt. Lecturer in the Department of Hispanic Studies at the University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
Phillip Wearne. Writer and researcher specializing in Latin American affairs.
Mark Wilson. Writer and researcher specializing in Caribbean affairs.

South Asia

Ehtisham Ahmad. Senior Fellow, Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Germany, and Senior Visiting Fellow, Asia Research Centre, London School of Economics, United Kingdom.
Lok Raj Baral. Executive Chairman, Nepal Centre for Contemporary Studies, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Sanjaya Baru. Director for Geo-economics and Strategy, The International Institute for Strategic Studies, London, United Kingdom.
Rudra Chaudhuri. Senior Lecturer, Department of War Studies and the India Institute, King’s College, London, United Kingdom.
Gouranga Lal Dasvarma. Adjunct Associate Professor of Population Studies, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.
Kingsley M. de Silva. Former Chairman, International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka, and Professor Emeritus, Department of History, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Shanthie Mariet D’Souza. Independent consultant and political and security analyst, based in New Delhi, India, and Singapore.
Sir Martin Ewans. Late former Head of Chancery, British Embassy, Afghanistan, and writer on Afghanistan affairs, London, United Kingdom.
B. H. Farmer. Late former Director, Centre of South Asian Studies, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
W. B. Fisher. Late Professor of Geography, University of Durham,United Kingdom.
Nick J. Freeman. Independent economic development consultant, based in Myanmar.
Marian Gallenkamp. Senior Research Assistant and Lecturer, Department of Political Science, South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University, Germany.
Rajat Ganguly. Senior Lecturer in Security Studies and International Relations, School of Management and Governance, Murdoch University, Australia.
Michael Gillan. Associate Professor, UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Australia.
Ashima Goyal. Professor of Economics, Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research, Mumbai, India.
Krishna Hachhethu. Professor of Political Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Ayesha Jalal. Mary Richardson Professor of History, and Director, Center for South Asian and Indian Ocean Studies, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA.
Mushtaq H. Khan. Professor of Economics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Iftikhar H. Malik. Professor of History, Bath Spa University, United Kingdom.
Peter Marsden. Writer and specialist on Afghanistan, London, United Kingdom.
Kenneth McPherson. Late Research Associate, Asia Research Centre, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, and Former Fellow, South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
Daanish Mustafa. Reader in Politics and Environment, Department of Geography, King’s College, London, United Kingdom.
R. Nagaraj. Professor, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
Harsh V. Pant. Professor of International Relations, Department of Defence Studies, King’s College London, United Kingdom.
Geoffrey Parrinder. Late Emeritus Professor of the Comparative Study of Religions, University of London, United Kingdom.
G. H. Peiris. Professor Emeritus, Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Gareth Price. Senior Research Fellow, Asia Programme, Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs), London, United Kingdom.
Ali Riaz. Professor and Chair of Politics and Government, Illinois State University, USA, and Editor, Studies on Asia.
Preet Rustagi. Professor at the Institute for Human Development, New Delhi, India, and Associate Editor, Indian Journal of Labour Economics.
S. W. R. de A. Samarasinghe. Adjunct Professor, Payson Center for International Development, Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, USA.
Amiera Sawas. Research Associate and PhD Researcher, Department of Geography, King’s College London, United Kingdom.
Brian Shaw. Honorary Research Fellow, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Ayesha Siddiqi. PhD Researcher, Department of War Studies and Department of Geography, King’s College London, United Kingdom.
Clemens Spiess. Director, AWO International, Kathmandu, Nepal, and Former Lecturer, Department of Political Science, South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg, Germany.
David Taylor. Former Vice Provost (Academic Development and Special Projects), Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan, and Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Louise Tillin. Lecturer in Politics, India Institute, King’s College London, United Kingdom.

The USA and Canada

Theodore R. Alter. Professor of Agricultural, Environmental and Regional Economics, and Co-Director of the Center for Economic and Community Development, the Pennsylvania State University, USA; Adjunct Research Fellow, School of Law, University of New England, Australia.
Christopher J. Bailey. Professor of American Politics at Keele University, United Kingdom.
Kevin Barnhurst. Professor/Chair of Communication in the Digital Era, Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Chris W. Bonneau. Associate Professor of Political Science, and Review Editor, Justice System Journal, University of Pittsburgh, USA.
Robert D. Bott. Writer and consultant in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, specializing in forestry and energy issues.
Mark R. Brawley. Professor in the Department of Political Science at McGill University, Canada.
Keith Brownsey. Associate Professor at Mount Royal University, Canada.
P. W. Daniels. Emeritus Professor of Geography in the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Byron W. Daynes. Professor of Political Science at the Brigham Young University, USA.
David Hastings Dunn. Professor of International Politics and Head of the Department of Political Science and International Studies, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Milton C. Hallberg. Late Professor Emeritus of Agricultural Economics at the Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Alan Hallsworth. Professor Emeritus of Geography at Staffordshire University, and Visiting Researcher, Portsmouth Business School at the University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Alexandra Homolar. Assistant Professor of International Security, University of Warwick, United Kingdom.
Athanasios Hristoulas. Professor in the Department of International Studies and Director of the National Security Program of Studies, Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México, Mexico.
Mark S. Hurwitz. Associate Professor of Political Science, Western Michigan University, USA.
Dennis S. Ippolito. Eugene McElvaney Professor of Political Science at the Southern Methodist University, USA.
Taylor Jackson. MA candidate, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
John Kramer. Professor of Sociology and Criminology at the Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Robert E. Looney. Professor of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, USA.
David McKay. Professor of Government at the University of Essex, United Kingdom.
Sandy Markwick. Writer and researcher specializing in North and South American affairs.
Gonzalo Martinez Mayer. Research Associate in the Department of International Studies, Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México, Mexico.
Geoffrey Mercer. Former Reader in the School of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Alexander Moens. Professor of Political Science, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
John Nerone. Professor Emeritus of Communications Research, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
Calum Paton. Professor of Public Policy in the School of Public Policy and Professional Practice at the University of Keele, United Kingdom.
Gillian Peele. Fellow and Tutor in Politics at Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Heather Marie Rice. Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science, Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania, USA.
David Robertson. Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of Politics and International Relations at the University of Oxford, United Kingdom, and Official Fellow at St Hugh's College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Glen Sussman. University Professor of Political Science at Old Dominion University, USA.
Lori Turnbull. Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science, Dalhousie University, Canada.

Western Europe

Bernhard Altermatt. Senior Lecturer and Researcher, Centre for European Studies, University of Fribourg-Freiburg, Switzerland, and Fribourg Business School, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland.
Clive Archer. Arctic Forum Foundation.
David Arter. Professor of Political Science, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Tampere, Finland.
Lino Briguglio. Professor of Economics, University of Malta, Malta.
Giovanni Caggiano. Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Management, University of Padua, Italy.
Günther K. Chaloupek. Director of Economic Policy Section, Austrian Chamber of Labour, Vienna, Austria.
Jacob Christensen. Lecturer, Social Work and Administration, University College Lillebaelt, Odense, Denmark.
Clive H. Church. Emeritus Professor of European Studies, University of Kent, United Kingdom, and Visiting Professor, University of Sussex, United Kingdom.
Xavier Cuadras Morató. Associate Professor, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
Patrick Dumont. Researcher in Political Science, Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Education, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
Lothar Funk. Professor of Economics and International Economic Relations, University of Applied Sciences, Düsseldorf, Germany, Fellow, Cologne Institute for Economic Research, Germany, and Visiting Fellow, Institute for German Studies, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Richard Gillespie. Professor of Politics, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
David H. Gowland. Specialist in economic policy and financial economics, United Kingdom.
Frøy Gudbrandsen. Researcher, Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen, Norway.
Derek Hearl. Emeritus Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Eastern Mediterranean University, ‘Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’.
H. A. Hellyer. Non-resident Fellow, Foreign Policy, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, USA, and Associate Fellow, Royal United Services Institute, London, United Kingdom.
John J. Horton. Honorary Research Fellow in Peace Studies, and former University Librarian, University of Bradford, United Kingdom.
Elisabeth Ivarsflaten. Associate Professor, Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen, Norway.
Ana E. Juncos. Lecturer, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
Lauri Kajanoja. Principal Adviser, Bank of Finland, Finland.
Raphaël Kies. Researcher in Political Science, Faculty of Arts, Humanites and Education, University of Luxembourg, luxembourg.
Andrew Knapp. Professor of French Politics and Contemporary History, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
David Lea. Senior Europe Analyst with the consultancy Control Risks, United Kingdom.
Stewart Lloyd-Jones. Director of the Contemporary Portuguese Politics and History Research Centre, member of the editorial board of the Portuguese Studies Review, and Editorial Consultant to the Portuguese Journal of Social Science, Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, Lisbon, Portugal.
Kurt Richard Luther. Professor of Comparative Politics, Keele University, United Kingdom, and Visiting Professor, University of Vienna, Austria.
Adrian McDonald. Professor Emeritus and Research Professor of Environmental Management, Environmental Faculty, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Tommy Möller. Professor of Political Science, Stockholm University, Sweden.
Anthony Mughan. Professor of Political Science, and Director, International Studies, Ohio State University, USA.
François Nectoux. Professor of Contemporary European Studies, Kingston University, United Kingdom.
James L. Newell. Professor of Politics, University of Salford, United Kingdom.
Manuel Palazuelos Marti´nez. Economic Analyst, European Commission, Seville, Spain.
William E. Paterson. Honorary Professor of German and European German Politics, Aston Centre for Europe, Aston University, United Kingdom.
Torben Mark Pedersen. Chief Analyst, Danish Chamber of Commerce, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Godfrey A. Pirotta. Professor of Government and Policy Studies, and Director, Institute of Public Administration and Management, University of Malta, Malta.
Lennart Schön. Professor of Economic History, Department of Economic History, Lund University, Sweden.
Julie Smith. Senior Lecturer, International Relations, Cambridge University, and Fellow in Politics, Robinson College, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Martin Smith. Professor of Politics, University of York, United Kingdom.
Sigurður Snævarr. Economist, Iceland.
Paul Statham. Professor of Migration, Director, Sussex Centre for Migration Research (SCMR), University of Sussex.
Stephen Syrett. Professor of Local Economic Development, Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research, Middlesex University, United Kingdom.
Ben Tonra. Jean Monnet Professor of European Foreign Security and Defence Policy, Head of the School of Politics and International Relations, University College Dublin, Ireland.
Steven B. Wolinetz. Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.

 


Back to Top




Please note, this site uses web standards that your browser does not support.
See help for further information.