Europa World: The Europa World Year Book online Routledge -- Taylor & Francis group
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Historical Context

Argentina: Historical Context

During the greater part of the 20th century government in Argentina tended to alternate between military and civilian rule. In 1930 Hipólito Yrigoyen, a member of the reformist Unión Cívica Radical (UCR), who in 1916 had become Argentina’s first President to be freely elected by popular vote, was overthrown in a coup, and the country’s first military regime was established. Civilian rule was restored in 1932, only to be supplanted by further military intervention in 1943. A leading figure in the new military regime, Col (later Gen.) Juan Domingo Perón Sosa, won a presidential election in 1946. He established the Peronista party in 1948 and pursued a policy of extreme nationalism and social improvement, aided by his second wife, Eva (‘Evita’) Duarte de Perón, whose popularity greatly enhanced his position and contributed to his re-election as President in 1951. In 1954, however, his promotion of secularization and the legalization of divorce brought him into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. In September 1955 President Perón was deposed by a revolt of the armed forces. He went into exile, eventually settling in Spain, from where he continued to direct the Peronist movement.

Following the overthrow of Perón, Argentina entered another lengthy period of political instability. Political control continued to pass between civilian (mainly Radical) and military regimes during the late 1950s and the 1960s. Elections were conducted in March 1973. The Frente Justicialista de Liberación, a Peronist coalition, secured control of the Congreso (Congress), while a presidential ballot was won by the party’s candidate, Dr Héctor Cámpora. However, Cámpora resigned in July to enable Gen. Perón, who had returned to Argentina, to contest a fresh ballot. In September Perón was returned to power, with more than 60% of the votes.

Citation: Historical Context (Argentina), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. Retrieved 19 January 2020 from

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