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Welcome to Europa World Plus

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Europa World Plus is the online version of the Europa World Year Book and the nine-volume Regional Surveys of the World series.

First published in 1926, the Europa World Year Book is renowned as one of the world's leading reference works, covering political and economic information in more than 250 countries and territories, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. The Europa Regional Surveys of the World offer in-depth, expert analysis at regional, sub-regional and country level.

Recent elections

The Gambia, 4 December 2021
Honduras, 28 November 2021
Chile, 21 November 2021
Tonga, 18 November 2021
Argentina, 14 November 2021
Nicaragua, 7 November 2021
Japan, 31 October 2021
Uzbekistan, 24 October 2021
Cabo Verde, 17 October 2021

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Click for detailThe Argentine Republic occupies almost the whole of South America south of the Tropic of Capricorn and east of the Andes. Throughout the 20th century government generally alternated between military and civilian rule. The so-called ‘dirty war’ between the military regime and its opponents in 1976–83 ... (MORE)

Recent Events

6 December 2021 Austria

Karl Nehammer of the Österreichische Volkspartei/Die neue Volkspartei (ÖVP), hitherto Federal Minister for the Interior, was sworn in as Chancellor. His predecessor, Alexander Schallenberg, who had taken on the premiership in mid-October after the resignation of Sebastian Kurz, had himself resigned in early December, shortly after Kurz announced his complete withdrawal from politics. (The ÖVP had for some time been embroiled in a corruption scandal and, prior to his resignation as Chancellor, Kurz had been placed under investigation—he denied any wrongdoing.) In an ensuing reorganization of ÖVP ministers—Federal Minister for Finance Gernot Blümel had also resigned—Schallenberg was reappointed to his former post as Federal Minister for European and International Affairs.

30 November 2021 Barbados

On the 55th anniversary of its independence from the United Kingdom, Barbados became a republic. The island’s new constitutional status was marked by a ceremony in Bridgetown’s Heroes Square in which the lowering of the Royal Standard represented the removal of the Queen as head of state. Dame Sandra Mason, hitherto Governor-General, was installed as President of Barbados. She had been elected as the country’s new head of state in the previous month by a joint session of Parliament.

30 November 2021 Iraq

The elections to the 329-seat Council of Representatives held on 10 October 2021 (originally scheduled to be held on 6 June) attracted a record low turnout of just 41.1% of registered voters. As a result of manual recounts of votes being ordered by the Independent High Electoral Commission in response to a series of electoral complaints about irregularities and violent clashes between the security forces and supporters of Iranian-backed militias and parties (which had suffered substantial losses in the poll), the official results were not released until 30 November. The Sadrist movement of Muqtada al-Sadr secured the largest representation in the legislature, winning 73 seats, while the Taqaddum (Progress) alliance of the Sunni parliamentary Speaker, Mohammed al-Halbousi, obtained 37 seats, the State of Law coalition of former Prime Minister Nuri Kamal (Jawad) al-Maliki 33 seats, the Kurdistan Democratic Party 31 seats, the pro-Iranian al-Fatah alliance of paramilitary leader Hadi Al Amiri 17 seats (representing a significant decrease from the 47 seats won by the group in the 2018 elections), the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan 17 seats and the al-Azm alliance 14 seats; a total of 43 seats were secured by independent candidates. In accordance with new electoral legislation introduced in December 2019, the elections were conducted using the system of a single non-transferable vote in 83 multi-member electoral districts (replacing the former proportional representation party-list system under which the governorates had acted as constituencies). One-quarter of seats were reserved for women and nine for minorities. The process of forming a new government was widely expected to be a lengthy one.

29 November 2021 Sweden

Magdalena Andersson, leader of the Sveriges Socialdemokratiska Arbetareparti (SAP—Swedish Social Democratic Party), was elected by the Riksdag as Sweden’s first female Prime Minister at the head of a minority SAP Government. She was endorsed by 101 votes in the legislature, with 75 abstentions and 173 votes against (175 votes against would have been required to reject her as premier). Andersson had briefly been elected as Prime Minister on 24 November, but had resigned after just a few hours, when the Miljöpartiet de Gröna (Green Party), which had agreed to form a coalition with the SAP, announced its departure from the Government over Sweden’s budget for 2022, following the Riksdag’s endorsement of a budget proposed by the right and far-right opposition parties.

28 November 2021 Honduras

Preliminary results released by the Consejo Nacional Electoral indicated that, with just over one-half of the votes counted, the left-wing challenger, Xiomara Castro, was in the lead by almost 20 percentage points (53.3% of the votes counted) in the presidential ballot. Castro, of the LIBRE party, was poised to bring to an end 12 years of rule by the right-wing Partido Nacional (PN). The PN’s presidential candidate, Nasry Asfura, who garnered 34.2% of the vote so far, conceded defeat on 30 November, congratulating Castro. The incumbent President, Juan Orlando Hernández, in office since 2014, was constitutionally barred from contesting a further term in office. His re-election in 2017 had been marred by controversy, including allegations of vote-rigging.

24 November 2021 Germany

Some two months after federal elections, the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD—Social Democratic Party of Germany), Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (Alliance 90/The Greens) and the Freie Demokratische Partei (FDP—Free Democratic Party) announced that they had agreed on coalition terms to form a Government. The agreement, which focused on combating climate change (including phasing out coal as an energy source by 2030) and on social issues (including simplifying rules for gaining German citizenship, lowering the voting age and increasing the minimum wage), would need the approval of the SPD and FDP at party conferences, and of the membership of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen. It was expected that, if the deal was accepted, the new Government would take office in early December under SPD leader Olaf Scholz as Chancellor, with major ministerial roles assigned to Bündnis 90/Die Grünen co-leaders Robert Habeck and Annalena Baerbock and to FDP leader Christian Lindner.

21 November 2021 Chile

The far-right candidate José Antonio Kast, representing the Partido Republicano, won the most votes in the presidential election, attracting 27.9% of the valid ballot, according to preliminary results. His nearest rival was the former student leader Gabriel Boric of the left-wing Apruebo Dignidad coalition, who garnered 25.8% of the votes. As neither candidate won more than 50% of the votes cast, a second round run-off ballot was to be held on 19 December, in which Kast and Boric hoped to secure endorsements from losing first round candidates, such as Franco Parisi, who came third despite living in the USA, Sebastián Sichel of the ruling centre-right coalition, and the centre-left Nuevo Pacto Social’s Yasna Provoste.

18 November 2021 Tonga

At elections to the 26-member Legislative Assembly, 14 of the 17 directly elective seats were won by independent candidates. The Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands suffered considerable losses, securing just three seats (compared with 14 in the 2017 elections), while Prime Minister Pohiva Tu‘i‘onetoa was the only one of the five incumbent legislators from the Tonga People’s Party Inc to retain their seat. Of the nine Nobles’ Representatives elected from among their peers in a separate ballot, three were new members. No women were elected to the Legislative Assembly and the electoral turnout was a reported 62% of registered voters. Following the elections Lord Tangi was elected as the Interim Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, in which capacity he was to preside over the election of the new Prime Minister from among the newly elected legislators.


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